The Kura - Japanese Art Treasures
Robert Mangold has been working with Japanese antiques since 1995 with an emphasis on ceramics, Paintings, Armour and Buddhist furniture.
In accordance with the requests of local authorities our Kyoto gallery will be closed to visitors from April 14th until further notice.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Porcelain : Pre 1960 item #1454001 (stock #TCR8261)
The Kura
$1,850.00
An image of the sleeping Shojo (sake Sprite) by the 12th generation Sakaida Kakiemon enclosed in the original signed wooden box titled Taihaku Shojo Bori Okimono. The ordinarily playful figure is performed in pure white, a serene look upon his sleeping face creating an almost holy feeling, the ladle fallen at his knee, leaning against a barrel of sake, the empty jar the only color. The image is 31 x 21 x 16 cm (12 x 8 x 6 inches) and is in excellent condition. Sakaida Kakiemon (1878-1963) was born the first son of the 11th generation head of the Sakaida family, and learned from his father, succeeding the family name in 1917. Rediscovering the Nigoshide technique was his life’s research, and together with his son grasped the essentials in 1947, presenting the first piece for public viewing in 1953. The Nigoshide technique was subsequently named an important cultural property, and the Kakiemon family designated the carriers of the tradition. Held in the collection of The Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art, Seattle Art Museum among others.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Sculpture : Pre 1920 item #1453933 (stock #MOR8260)
The Kura
$1,000.00
A sublime expression, that of satisfaction after a good days work complete, adorns the visage of this aged wood cutter as he sits on a stump, resting his upper body on the long handle of his axe. Dressed in the typical garb of the working class, Pants fitting tight at the ankles over straw sandles, a samue jackat open at the knotty muscles of his neck, and a light cloth cap tied about his head. Has he just felled the tree, or perhaps he was using the stump to chop wood for winter, or even to fuel the kiln for the next round of firing? Expertly rendered in the Itto-bori tradition of carving from a single block and signed on the base. It is 43 cm (17 inches) tall and in excellent condition dating from the early 20th century.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Paintings : Pre 1920 item #1453932 (stock #ANR8259)
The Kura
$3,400.00
Sale Pending
Geese in vivid strokes of black ink gather before a tattered curtain of dry grasses on the shoreline of this beautiful ink screen by Araki Juppo dated to a winter day in 1911. The artist has beautifully captured the cold of a winter day, the features on the birds fluffed up against the chill, Ink on paper in a border of patterned silk with black lacquered frame. It is hard to believe the artist has managed to capture this scene utilizing only shades of black. The screen is 258 x 155 cm (101-1/2 x 61 inches). There is some discoloration from humidity in the corners, and toning to the paper along the hinges typical of age, otherwise is in excellent condition.
Araki Juppo (also Jippo, 1872-1944) was born in Nagasaki prefecture Omura village at the beginning of the Meiji period with the given name Asanaga Teijiro. In his 20th year he was adopted by the important painter Araki Kanpo in Tokyo. A member of the Japanese Art Academy from 1895, he helped in the foundation of the Nihongakai painting exhibition in 1897 and exhibited with both organizations. He also became a professor of Art at the Tokyo Women”s University that same year, and would foster two generations of female artists there until his retirement from the institution in 1919. In 1905 Kanpo opened a Salon exhibition which was held annually, and after the death of Kanpo Juppo took over as head of the salon. He began exhibiting with the Bunten National exhibtoin from 1908, and was accepted there consistently. He also exhibited abroad, including the Paris Exposition in 1900, the 1904 St. Louis, Exposition and was awarded at the Japan England Exhibition in 1910. The first world war put an end to overseas travel and exhibition for a while. In the interim he was appointed a member of the Imperial Art Academy in 1923 and was awarded the Imperial Order of Cultural Merit 4th Order in 1925. His work was exhibited again in France in 1926, and in Bangkok in 1931. Growing Nationalism and encroaching war eventually forced him to relocate outside Tokyo, and he died before peace came again. Work by the artist is held in the Art Institute of Chicago, Tokyo National Museum of Modern Art, Shizuoka Prefectural Museum of Art, Nagasaki Prefectural Museum and Mie Prefectural Art Museum among many others.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Paintings : Pre 1700 item #1453883 (stock #AOT8258)
The Kura
Price on Request
An elaborate 15th to 16th century Japanese painting performed in the Chinese Ming style of a palace scene in lavish color and precise detail on silk highlighted with gold. Courtesans in immaculate coiffure stroll out through the tiled palisades from an immense palace draped in reed curtains, both the curtains and leafy trees indicating warm weather. Several raised curtains offer a view into the royal home decorated with precious treasures. It is reminiscent of the style of Qiu Ying (1494-1552) and his daughter Qiu Zhu (active second half of the 16th century). The painting is mounted onto a panel between strips of dark blue antique patterned silk is bordered with a narrow band of pale color with a wider border of regal ocher. This has been set into a rounded red-lacquered wood frame. The frame is 70 x 94 cm. The painting itself is 58 x 79 cm. I have not opened the frame, but there is considerable damage to the silk in the upper right quadrant as is visible in the images.
Small clues, the style of the trees, variations in the dress, indicate this was painted by a Japanese artist. Some of the pigments, the pale green in particular, are imported colors, not consistent with those used by Japanese painters at the time. From the late 9th century, although private trade and piracy existed, there was no direct official trade between China and Japan. In 1401 the Ashikaga Shogun sent the first emissary to China in 400 years. Over time official trade came to be managed by authorized warlords, and the following 150 years many official trading vessels and delegations went to China, and there was a great influx of Chinese influence on Japanese culture at the time. One can surmise that the acquisition of Chinese pigments would have been of considerable expense, and that this painting was performed for a very important (and wealthy) person.
For more detailed photos please contact me directly.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Porcelain : Pre 1940 item #1453733 (stock #TCR5110)
The Kura
$800.00
A lovely pair of matching Tea pots for Chinese steeped tea decorated by the eccentric artist Kai Kozan, each wrapped in a sarasa bag and enclosed in a compartmentalized wooden box signed by the artist. They are roughly 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter and in excellent condition.
Kai Kozan (1867-1961) was from the land of the literati, Oita prefecture. In 1880 he entered the studio of Hoashi Kyo-u. In 1896 he married Kai Wariko, (daughter of a Honganji Buddhist scholar and graduate of Doshisha Women’s University), and together they helped to establish in 1899 a school for women based on Buddhist principles, and in 1900 BunChuEn JoGakko, what would become Kyoto Womens University and he served as a professor there while maintaining a scholar’s lifestyle throughout his long life.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Stoneware : Pre 1920 item #1453328 (stock #TCR8255)
The Kura
$880.00
Sale Pending
A unique set of 7 nesting katakuchi bowls with serving spouts in various glaze techniques by Kiyomizu Rokubei IV enclosed in a period wooden box annotated by the fifth generation Rokubei, the inscription dated Autumn of 1943. The smallest cup is 5.5-6 cm diameter, the largest 15-16 cm diameter. The largest bowl has been broken and repaired with gold lacquer; the others are all in excellent condition.
Kiyomizu Rokubei IV (1848-1920) was born the first son of Rokubei III and headed the family kiln from 1883-1913.He studied painting in the Shijo manner under Shiiokawa Bunrin and had a brotherly relationship with his fellow student Kono Bairei (under whom his own son would study painting). He sought to revitalize the pottery tradition of Kyoto, bringing in new techniques and styles and together with artists like Asai Chu and Nakazawa Iwata took part in the Entoen group and with Kamizaka Sekka the Keitobi-kai. He also held a strong relationship with literati artists such as Tomioka Tessai and together with these artists produced many joint works. He fell ill in 1902, finally handing the reins over to the 5th generation in 1913.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Tea Articles : Pre 1900 item #1453322 (stock #TCR4866)
The Kura
$650.00
Sale Pending
An important and rare Fushinayaki Pottery Sencha tea brazier Rodai decorated by Tanomura Chokunyu and made in the former castle kiln of Izumo province. A simple hut is shaded by a grand tree at the foot of a tree covered mountain accompanied by a poem in Kanshi. The tile was meant to be placed under a Ryoro brazier for making steeped tea. It is 7 inches (18 cm) square, 1 inch (2 cm) thick. It bears two stamps beneath, Isumo Jakuzan and Eizo, and is dated Meiji 12 (1879) in red. About the signature are what appear to be tangled plum branches in raised white. This date was one year before the kiln went public and began producing pottery for export. It is auspicious, and very likely that the great Tanomura was asked to assist with the kiln going public. The box is titled Unshu Fushina yaki, Sensei Chokunyu Kyoshi Seisho, Rodai. Inside it is annotated by Hirao Chikka in 1933 on the right, an unknown person on the let, possibly one of the sons of Chikunyu although the word for father here is ambiguous.
Tanomura Chokunyu (1814-1907) was born in Oita (the Oka Feif) and studied initially under Okamoto Baisetsu before moving to paint under the famous literatus Tanomura Chikuden (1777-1835), who adopted him as a son and had a very strong influence on the young artist. Upon Chikudens death he also studied briefly under Oshio Chusai (1792-1837) then finally ventured out on his own upon that teachers passing. He was a strong proponent of the Literati and Sencha movements, and decorated many items for use in that realm. He moved to Kyoto, where he helped found the Kyoto Municipal School of painting and eventually withdrew from the world, becoming an Obaku Zen Monk in 1902. For more on his influence on tea and the literati see “Sencha,Tea of the Sages” by Patricia Graham.
Fushina-yaki was the Goyogama clan kiln of the Matsudaira of Matsue Han in modern day Izumo, established around 1764. It fell strongly under the aesthetic taste of Matsudaira Harusato (1751-1818) Daimyo of the province and tea master. It became an important influence on the Mingei movement and was visited by Bernard Leach, Hamada Shoji and Kawai Kanjiro.
Hirao Chikka (1856-1939) was born the son of a potter. At the age of 16 he went to Kyoto to train as a painter, first in the Shijo manner under Shiokawa Bunrin, and following the death of Bunrin, in the Nanga tradition under Tanomura Chokunyu. He travelled extensively withhis teacher and on his own, absorbing various local traditions. An important artist he assisted in the founding of the Nihon Nanga-in organization of painters.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Stoneware : Pre 1920 item #1453292 (stock #TCR8254)
The Kura
$1,300.00
Sale Pending
A set of 20 fawn dappled Gohon cups decorated with blue Bell-flowers (Kikyo) by Kiyomizu Rokubei enclosed in the original signed wooden box titled Gohon Kikyo Banchawan Nijuko Iri (Gohon Bell-Flower Bancha Tea Cup 20 piece Set). Inside the box is dated the 9th month of Taisho 11 (1922). The artis was very fond of this particular flower, and you will see it repeated often in his work. One cup has a small gold repair to the rim, (see close-up photos) otherwise they are all in perfect condition and come wrapped in the original stamped cloths.
Kiyomizu Rokubei V (Shimizu Kuritaro, 1875-1959) initially studied painting and decorating technique under Kono Bairei, one of the foremost painters in Japan in the Meiji era. After graduating the Kyoto Municipal Special School of Painting, he took a position under his father at the family kiln however. That same year he exhibited his first work at the National Industrial Exposition. He was a co-founder of Yutoen with his father and Asai Chu, and worked ceaselessly to promote the pottery of Kyoto. He helped to establish the Kyoto Ceramics Research Facility (Kyoto Tojiki Shikensho) at the turn of the century which would be the proving ground for many young artist of the era. Doctor Maezaki Shinya has noted that Teishitsu-Gigei-in (Imperial Art Academy Member) Seifu Yohei III also fired his acclaimed works in the Rokubei kiln in the Taisho era. Due to his father’s poor health Rokubei V took the reins unofficially in 1902, commanding the helm until assuming the name Rokubei V in 1913. It was in 1928 that Rokubei changed the reading of the family name from Shimizu to Kiyomizu and applied it retroactively to previous generations. He exhibited constantly, and garnered a great many awards. He worked to get crafts added to the National Art Exhibition (Bunten/Teiten) and served as a judge in 1927, the first year crafts were allowed. In 1937 he was designated a member of the Imperial Art Council (Teishitsu Bijutsu Inkai). Despite changes in the world around him Rokubei persevered, working in all manner of materials and styles. He retired in 1945, perhaps as exhausted as Japan was with the end of the war, or perhaps seeing that capitulation would signal a new era in need of new leaders and a new aesthetic. He passed the name Rokubei to his son and took the retirement name Rokuwa. Uncontainable he continued to create pottery under that name until his death in 1959. His influence is so pervasive he was voted one of the most important potters of the modern era by Honoho magazine, the preeminent quarterly devoted to Japanese pottery. A multitude of works by him are held in the The National Museums of Modern Art, both in Tokyo and Kyoto, the Kyoto Kyocera Museum, The Kyoto Hakubutsukan Museum and the Philadelphia Art Museum among others.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Tea Articles : Pre 1940 item #1453249 (stock #MOR8253)
The Kura
$950.00
A large wooden tray intricately carved from a single plank into the shape of a wide curling water leaf upon which rests a lotus flower signed Risho and enclosed in the original signed wooden box. In one corner a second leaf still curled rises from below, ready to open. The carver’s seal is incised into the center of the leaf beneath, as if it were the cut stem. The tray is 48 x 25 x 4 cm (19 x 10 x 1-1/2 inches) and in excellent condition.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Okimono : Pre 1940 item #1453124 (stock #MOR8252)
The Kura
$900.00
A fabulous little bronze figure of a golden-eyed Tanuki dressed in priests robes dozing on a large prayer drum signed on the base what appears to be Yoshiyuki. The round drum is finished in a soft red color, while the figure itself is olive with brilliant gold eyes. It is 17 cm (6-1/2 inches) long and in excellent condition.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Metalwork : Pre 1960 item #1453094 (stock #MOR8250)
The Kura
$1,850.00
A brilliant large bronze vase signed Bisho reflecting the Art Deco aesthetic enclosed in the original signed wooden box titled Jundo Kaki (Pure Bronze Vase). It is 38 cm (15 inches) tall, 25.7 x 15 cm (10 x 6 inches) across the base and in excellent condition. Yoneda Bisho (1927-2008) was a bronze artist based in the Takaoka region active from the immediate post-war into the modern era. His innovative designs were initially based in the mid-century Art Deco revival but slowly veered to be very much his own designs. Two pieces are held in the Takaoka Municipal Museum of Art.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Lacquer : Pre 1930 item #1453093 (stock #MOR8249)
The Kura
$650.00
Sale Pending
A stunning box made of burled Keyaki lacquered to reveal and accentuate the rippling grain of the precious wood. Inside is festive red with a Tachibana circled family crest inside the lid. The ensemble is 23 x 21.5 x 39 cm (9 x 8-1/2 x 15-1/2 inches) and is in excellent condition. It comes enclosed in a red lacquered protective outer box. Superb quality.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Stoneware : Pre 1900 item #1453033 (stock #TCR8248)
The Kura
$925.00
Butterflies drift over autumn flowers on this Ryoro brazier by Mizukoshi Yosanbei enclosed in a period wooden box endorsed later by Iemoto Watanabe Sokei of the Shogetsu Ryu School of Tea preparation. The pale Kyo-yaki glaze has been sprayed with silver (fuki-e style) over which the insects and flora have been depicted in enamel colors. Impressed into the foot ring is the Yosanbei seal. It is 26 cm (10-1/4 inches) tall, 13.5 cm (5-1/4 inches) diameter. It comes with a new removable bisk fired liner in perfect condition. There are minor nicks around the inside lip where the liner rests, but the Ryoro itself is overall in excellent condition. The box has been annotated by Watanabe Sokei, Iemoto (head) of the Shogetsu-ryu School of Sencha Tea preparation and comes with a note explaining a brief history of the Mizukoshi family pottery hand written and signed by Sokei, in an envelope from the Shogetsu School. The first generation Mizukoshi Yosanbei (also read Yosanhei) was born the son of a wealthy merchant named Sugiura Ninzo in the Sanjo (central) deistric of Kyoto, but was slated to succeed his mothers household (for lack of heirs presumably) so received his mothers maiden name Mizukoshi. He apprenticed in potteryunder the Raku specialist Okazaki (Jinraku) Bunzan. He was proficient in many styles of popular Tea ware including Nanban, Karatsu and Hagias well as Ninsei and other Kyo-yaki styles. He used a five sided seal with the haracters Yosan inside. It is known that potters including Okeya Isaburo from Kutani came to study under him in 1822, so he must have had considerable influence in the later Edo period. He was succeeded by two generations, however the kiln closed during the chaotic fall of the Bakufu (Shogunate) in the 1860s.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Porcelain : Pre 1920 item #1452869 (stock #TCR8247)
The Kura
$1,250.00
A Gasaku joint effort by Kyoto porcelain master Takahashi Dohachi V and Scholar artist Tomioka Tessai (1837-1924) dating from the late Meiji to Taisho period enclosed in a period wooden box. Enigmatic Characters among scholarly figures in cobalt strike firmly from the smooth alabaster surface. Each cup is 5.5 cm (2 inches) and in perfect condition but for onewhich has a slight nick in the rim. The poems dashed out on the bowls are followed by the signature Tessai Gai-shi, and each is signed inside the foot ring Dohachi. Takahashi Dohachi was one in the line of great porcelain masters of Kyoto. The family began potting in the 18th century, and was brought to the forefront of porcelain by the second generation head of the family. From then it was known as one of the top three families in Kyoto for porcelain production. The fifth generation took control of the kiln in 1897. Tomioka Tessai was a scholar artist trained from age seven in the traditional Confucian manner. After the death of his father he was apprenticed to a Shinto shrine, and later moved to work under Otagaki Rengetsu, from whom he was heavily influenced. He held a number of important positions, culminating in being appointed the official painter of the Emperor and a member of the Imperial Art Academy; the highest honor in Japanese Art circles. He was known to have worked with Dohachi in porcelains, as well as Eiraku Zengoro, Suwa Sozan and Kiyomizu Rokubei.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Metalwork : Pre 1920 item #1453884 (stock #MOR4818)
The Kura
Sold, Thank you!
A silver rabbit and large solid bronze figure of the young god O-kuninushi no Mikado by Oshima Joun on a black lacquered stand enclosed in the original signed and red lacquered wooden box with separate compartments for the table and figure. Here we see O-kuninushi seated beside his bundle of belongings, hand extended in benevolence to the meek creature. The box is titled O-kuninushi Go-Zo, Go Okimono, Tobu Oshimia Joun Sakku followed by a ka-o signature. Inside is written the characters SoNeKo(Shi)ShakuDen(Tono). The inscription infers some Imperial event at which this was given (The character Shaku is the same as the UjinoShaku Imperial visit held after New years when commoners who have excelled in the previous year are granted an audience with the Emperor). There are two patches of fresh lacquer inside the lid, indicating a name and possible date of the recipient have been erased. The bronze figure is 8-1/2 inches (22 cm) tall and weighs 4.5 kg (9-1/2 lbs). The rabbit is solid silver, 28 grams. Both are in fine condition.
I believe the story tells of a young god Onamuji (who would become O-kuninushi) and eight of his fellows who left Izumo seeking the hand of princess Yakami of Inaba. He being the youngest and kindest of the group, was left to carry the baggage. As the men reached the coast, they found a rabbit stripped of fur and bleeding. So as a prank they told him to wash in the sea and dry himself in the sun. Of course this caused the rabbit much pain, until Onamuji arrived (delayed with the heavy bags), and told the hare to wash himself in the clean rivers of the stream and roll in the billowing seeds of the cat-tails. The rabbit quickly recovered, and made a prediction to the lad that indeed Yakami would fall in love with him above all others despite his appearing as a servant.
Oddly the story does not end there, and one must pity the princess, for the other men kill Onamuji (several times and he is several times revived) and he is forced to flee to the underworld, where he falls in love with King Susano’s daughter and elopes with her. The grand Shrine at Izumo, one of the oldest and most important in Japan, is dedicated to Okuninushi, and he is believed to be the builder of nations.
All Items : Vintage Arts : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Porcelain : Pre 1930 item #1453752 (stock #TCR8257)
The Kura
Sold, Thank you!
An unusual porcelain bowl stamped on the base Taizan and decorated with old masks in cobalt pigment by the well-known carver Ichikawa Tetsuro enclosed in the original signed wooden box dated mid-summer of 1928. Between each mask, engraved into the surface but not colored is what appears to be a description of each mask and where it is held (for example Todaiji Temple). The artists signature is also engraved in this manner. The bowl is 20 cm (8 inches) diameter and in excellent condition.
Ichikawa Tetsuro (1901-1987) was born in Tokyo and apprenticed in wood carving in the ancient capitol Nara under Kano Tessai (1845-1925), becoming one of his last and most accomplished students. He received the name Tetsuro (taking the first character of his teachers name) at the age of 22.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Stoneware : Pre 1920 item #1453734 (stock #TCR8256)
The Kura
Sold, Thank you!
A beautiful Kyo-satsuma vase exquisitely decorated in various enamels and gilt signed on the base with a Satsuma mark and the name Matsumoto Hozan. A mother and daughter view flowers along the shore in the shade of delicately rendered bamboo opposite pigeons under seeding flowers along a stream. The two scenes are separated by scrolling vines bursting with flowers and floral windows in vivid gold on Prussian blue. It is 20 cm (7-3/4 inches) tall and in excellent overall great condition with minor wear to the gold rim typical of use.
All Items : Antiques : Regional Art : Asian : Japanese : Porcelain : Pre 1900 item #1453731 (stock #TCR4840)
The Kura
Sold, Thank you!
A set of five porcelain tea cups by Ninnami Dohachi decorated with bamboo and poetry by Nukina Kaioku (Suo) enclosed in a superb custom period kiri-wood box with rosewood edges. Each cup is 2 inches (5 cm) tall, 2-1/2 inches (6 cm) diameter. There are old gold repairs to two of the cups, otherwise are in fine condition.
Nukina Kaioku (1778-1863) was born into a samurai family in Awa, on the island of Shikoku a patron of the Hachisuka clan. In frail health, he was excluded from the strict rigours of the martial arts, but was trained in the typical Confucian education based on Chinese classics, painting and calligraphy, at which he excelled. He went to Koyasan to study Buddhism, Literati arts in Nagasaki and advanced Confucian studies in Edo(Tokyo). He settled in Kyoto where he established the Shuseido Academy teaching Confucian studies, and his circle was extremely influential in the waning days of the Edo government, especially among loyalists. Works by this artist can be found in the British Museum, Brooklyn Museum, The Walters Art Museum, Honolulu Museum, as well as a plethora of domestic museums in cluding MOMAT, Homma, Imabari, Itabayashi etc.
The Dohachi Kiln was established in Awataguchi by a retainer of Kameyama fief, Takahashi Dohachi I around 1760, and the name Dohachi was brought to the forefront of porcelain and ceramic production by the second generation head of the family who attained an imperial following, and grew to be one of the most famous potters of the Later Edo period to come from Kyoto.
Ninnami Dohachi (1783-1855) was born the second son of Takahashi Dohachi I in Kyoto. He opened a kiln in the Gojo-zaka area of Kyoto (at the foot of Kiyomizu temple) in 1814. Well known for research into and perfection of ancient Chinese and Korean forms long held in high esteem in Japan, and at the same time working to expand the family reputation within tea circles, along with contemporaries Aoki Mokubei and Eiraku Hozen became well known as a master of porcelain as well as Kenzan and Ninsei ware. Over the following decades he would be called to Takamatsu, Satsuma, Kishu and other areas to consult and establish kilns for the Daimyo and Tokugawa families as well as Nishi-Honganji Temple. He is also held in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Kyoto National Museum among others.
The third generation (1811-1879) was known as Kachutei Dohachi and continued the work of his father, producing an abundance of Sencha tea ware and other porcelain forms, maintaining the highest of standards and ensuring the family place in the anals of Kyoto ceramics well into the Meiji period.